Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.[citation needed] [1] This is usually only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights, which are used for inventions. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves. 

Copyright is applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution. 

Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights". This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works "cross" national borders or national rights are inconsistent. 

Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions.

Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights. The development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, and inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law.] Simultaneously, businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.

Copyright licenses can also be granted by those deputized by the original claimant, and private companies may request this as a condition of doing business with them. Services of internet platform providers like YouTube, Facebook, GitHub, Hotmail, DropBox, Instagram, WhatsApp or Twitter only can be used when users grant the platform provider beforehand the right to co-use all uploaded content, including all material exchanged per email, chat or cloud-storage. These copyrights only apply for the firm that operates such a platform, no matter in what jurisdiction the platform-services are being offered. Private companies in general do not recognize exceptions or give users more rights than the right to use the platform according certain rules.


Brazil's Law

Copyrights were established in Brazil by the law 9.610 of the 1988 Constitution, and were set to protect literary, artistic and scientific works – in other words, to protect the expression of an idea, not the idea itself. According to this law, as soon as the work is finished, it is its author who has the right to use it. This right continues for the whole author's life plus 70 years counting from January 1st after his death; during this period, anyone who wants to use the work has to ask the author's permission. When this time is over, the work becomes available to everyone in the public domain.

Even though you instantly get a copyright as soon as you finish your work, it's advisable to have a document. Dated and printed articles, copies of your texts, records of your songs in more than one CD are some measures taken to protect your work. But sometimes more safety is needed, and authors can formally register their works at institutions such as the Fundação Biblioteca Nacional (the National Library Foundation) or the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (the National School of Fine Arts). The institution vary according to the type of work that you want to register.

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